Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming in Python

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a powerful paradigm that allows us to structure our programs around objects, which represent real-world entities. Python provides robust support for OOP, making it a popular choice for building complex and scalable applications. In this blog post, we will explore the fundamental concepts of OOP in Python.

Classes and Objects

At the core of OOP is the concept of classes and objects. A class is a blueprint for creating objects, defining their properties (attributes), and specifying the actions they can perform (methods). An object is an instance of a class, which encapsulates both data (attributes) and behavior (methods).

Here’s an example of a simple class in Python:

class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age): = name
        self.age = age

    def greet(self):
        print(f"Hello, my name is {}.")

# Creating objects of the Person class
person1 = Person("Alice", 25)
person2 = Person("Bob", 30)

# Accessing object attributes and calling methods
print(  # Output: Alice
print(person2.age)   # Output: 30
person1.greet()      # Output: Hello, my name is Alice.

In this example, we define a Person class with attributes name and age, as well as a greet method. We then create two objects (person1 and person2) of the Person class and access their attributes and methods.


Inheritance is a key feature of OOP that allows us to create new classes (derived classes) based on existing classes (base classes). The derived classes inherit attributes and methods from the base class, and we can also add new attributes and methods or modify existing ones.

Here’s an example of inheritance in Python:

class Employee(Person):
    def __init__(self, name, age, employee_id):
        super().__init__(name, age)
        self.employee_id = employee_id

    def display_employee_info(self):
        print(f"Employee ID: {self.employee_id}")

# Creating an object of the Employee class
employee = Employee("John", 35, 12345)

# Accessing attributes and methods from the base class
print(       # Output: John
employee.greet()           # Output: Hello, my name is John.

# Accessing attributes and methods from the derived class
employee.display_employee_info()  # Output: Employee ID: 12345

In this example, we define an Employee class that inherits from the Person class. The Employee class has an additional attribute employee_id and a new method display_employee_info. The object employee can access attributes and methods from both the base class (Person) and the derived class (Employee).

Encapsulation and Abstraction

Encapsulation and abstraction are important principles in OOP. Encapsulation refers to the bundling of data and methods within a class, where the internal details are hidden from the outside world. This helps maintain data integrity and provides a clean interface for interacting with objects. Abstraction, on the other hand, focuses on presenting essential features and hiding unnecessary details.

Here’s a simplified example of encapsulation and abstraction:

class BankAccount:
    def __init__(self, account_number, balance):
        self.account_number = account_number
        self.balance = balance

    def deposit(self, amount):
        self.balance += amount

    def withdraw(self, amount):
        if self.balance >= amount:
            self.balance -= amount
            print("Insufficient balance.")

    def display_balance(self):
        print(f"Account Number: {self.account_number}")
        print(f"Balance: ${self.balance}")

# Creating an object of the BankAccount class
account = BankAccount("1234567890", 1000)

# Performing operations on the bank account

In this example, we define a BankAccount class that encapsulates attributes (account_number and balance) and methods (deposit, withdraw, and display_balance). The internal details of the class are hidden, and users interact with objects through the provided methods.


Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common base class. This provides flexibility and allows us to write code that can work with objects of multiple types. Polymorphism is achieved through method overriding and method overloading.

Here’s a simple example of polymorphism in Python:

class Shape:
    def area(self):

class Rectangle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, length, width):
        self.length = length
        self.width = width

    def area(self):
        return self.length * self.width

class Circle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius

    def area(self):
        return 3.14 * self.radius * self.radius

# Creating objects of different shapes
rectangle = Rectangle(5, 3)
circle = Circle(4)

# Calculating areas of different shapes using a common method
shapes = [rectangle, circle]
for shape in shapes:

In this example, we define a base class Shape with an abstract area method. The derived classes Rectangle and Circle override the area method and provide their own implementations. We create objects of different shapes and calculate their areas using the common area method.


Object-oriented programming is a powerful paradigm that allows for modular, reusable, and scalable code. In this blog post, we explored the fundamental concepts of OOP in Python, including classes, objects, inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, and polymorphism. By leveraging these concepts, you can design and build sophisticated applications with ease.

In the next blog post, we will shift our focus to organizing our Python code using modules and packages. We’ll learn how to break our code into smaller, manageable units, and how to leverage existing libraries and third-party modules to enhance our applications. Stay tuned for more exciting Python programming insights!

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